Annotated Articles and Books

Adamson, Christopher. (1983). Punishment after Slavery. Southern State Penal Systems. (30) 5, 555-69.
Christopher Adamson addresses political and economic function in the state penal system in the southern Untied States after the Civil War. He also talks about the prison systems administration, discipline, and labor which emerged after 1865 - known as the convict tease system - was a functional replacement for slavery. The Black Codes, vagrancy laws, and sharecropping arrangements, are some examples of the convict lease system which were mechanisms of race control used to prevent ex-slaves from obtaining the status and rights enjoyed by wage workers. The organization and philosophy of crime control both before and after the Civil War reflected the fact that both slaves and ex-slaves were problem populations.

Beamon, K., & Bell, P. A. (2006). Academics versus Athletics: An Examination of the Effects of Background and Socialization on African American Male Student Athletes. The Social Science Journal, 43 (3), 393-403.
The image of the African American college athlete has superseded any other image of the African American male in academia. While there have been successful athletic experiences for many African American males in college, there is a sense that this achievement is bought at the expense of academic achievement. This article studies and addresses the socialization of African American males and how it predicts the success or failure of the African American male athlete as a student. A study of a football team at a Division I University was completed and various issues addressed according to the data collected. Factors such as parental involvement, study habits, and environment are analyzed. Following the reports on the data and collection is a brief summary and conclusion for the implications of the study.

Bonner, W. W. (1997). Black Male Perspectives of Counseling on a Predominately White University Campus. Journal of Black Studies, 27 (3), 395-408.
This article discusses the challenges that African American males face in adjusting academically on a predominately white campus. As a result, African American men experience many stressors and problems while matriculating at mainstream institutions. Bonner’s article highlights the various stressors and indicators for the mental and emotional health of African American male students. In a study conducted by Bonner, he analyzed whether the attitudes of African American male students are in accordance with other studies, if counseling affects their attitudes and furthermore, the various factors that can be correlated with their attitudes. The results of the study are discussed as well as implications for the utilization of resources such as counselors and counseling centers at predominately white institutions.

Bonner, F. A. & Bailey, K. W. (2006). Enhancing the Academic Climate for African American College Men. In M. J. Cuyjet (Ed.), African American Men in College (pp. 24-46). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bonner and Bailey offer discourse on the factors that have been proven to enhancing and promoting a successful academic climate and experience for African American men. These factors include peer and family support, personal development and perception, as well as faculty relationships and institutional environment. The authors analyzed all of the aforementioned factors while providing a plethora of research and statistics that illustrate how those factors either assist or inhibit African American males that are in institutions of higher education. This article highlights a need for the support of both academic administration as well as student affairs administration in the creation of positive academic environments as well as positive social settings.

Bonner, F.A, Jennings, M.E., Marbley, A.F., & Brown, L. (2008). Capitalizing on Leadership Capacity: Gifted African American Males in High School. Roeper Review, 30, 93-103.
Bonner confluences several aspects of researchon gifted African American males to compile this information pertaining to utilizing those individuals in a positive manner. He links the prevalence of smart young African American men to the fact that those who can succeed in high school and who are properly cultivated by understanding their identity and leadership potential can manifest their gifts so they can be thoroughly used. He stresses the importance of community, religious organizations, Historically Black Greek Letter Organizations which all help build leadership qualities in these young men. Family is also important in fostering an environment conducive to success. By recognizing leadership and giftedness in a child and properly cultivating it institutions are laying a strong foundation which will follow the students their entire lives.

Boyd, H. (2007). It's Hard Out Here for a Black Man!. The Black Scholar, 47 (3), 2-9.
Boyd outlines several daunting statistics pertaining to African American males in numerous subjects including education, suicide, sexual health, family structure, poverty, employment, and notably incarceration. He uses these statistics to make the point that life is hard for black men due to all of these issues. Not every black man faces these issues however he is explicating that the way that the issue interwork with one another creates an overall negative perception of black men and in turn produces a vicious cycle that fuels common stereotypes. His synopsis is that this issue must be tackled on an individual basis. He urges each and every black man to assess himself and take proactive corrective action to make noteworthy changes which will consequently allow him to help other black men.

Brown, C. (2006). The Impact of Campus Activities on African American College Men. In M. J. Cuyjet (Ed.), African American Men in College. (pp.47-67). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
Brown gives an analysis of issues concerning the student involvement and engagement of African American men. He highlights the importance of environmental assessment on college campuses as well as strategic planning. Research and contemporary literature demonstrates that college administrators must pay special attention to the campus climate that they create for all college students if their goal is to increase student involvement and engagement and particularly that of African American males. Brown discusses a case study and details the procedure used, participants, and the findings and conclusions of the study completed. There is also a discussion concerning the non academic environment and how it relates to student perception, engagement as well as student involvement in social activities and organizations.

Bruce, Marino A. (2004) "Contextual Complexity and Violent Delinquency among Black and White Males." Journal of Black Studies. 35 (1), 65-98.
Bruce Marino discusses various factors that are believed to be related with delinquency amongst African American males. This journal correlates the behaviors of Caucasian and African American males. Marino highlights various studies that have been conducted such as the one that suggests that adolescence is a pivotal factor amongst blacks. This is primarily because adolescence is generally the time period when individuals begin instituting themselves as adults. Marino also discusses the positive and negative effects families have with conventional and unconventional arrangements when kids are in their adolescent years.

Buford May, Rueben A. (2009). The Good and Bad of It All: Professional Black Male Basketball Players as Role Models for Young Black Male Basketball Players. Sociology of Sport Journal, (26), 443-461.
Buford May outlines the idea through conventional wisdom that professional black male basketball players should be role models for young black males basket ball players. Many young black males choose basketball players as role models due to not only their actions on the court but also their involvement with things outside of basketball. The NBA views potential role models from a standpoint of social responsibility rather than service. In essence it is generally infeasible to put a burden of being a role model of an impersonal figure such as a basketball player because they only have so much influence on the ideas and actions of the people who look up to them.

Butler, Paul. (1995). Racially Based Jury Nullification: Black Power in the Criminal Justice System. Yale Law Journal. 105 (3), 677-725.
Paul Butler addresses a number of issues within the criminal justice system directly related to race. Butler spent years as a District Attorney in the nation’s capitol and during this time he observed many jury’s practice what he believes was Jury Nullification. Jury Nullification is the acquittal of a defendant who appears guilty via evidence and Judges Recommendation. He views such actions solely based on race as disgusting and challenges blacks and members of all races to root their opinions in fact versus creed.

Byfield, Cheron. (2008). The Impact of religion on the educational achievement of black boys: a UK and UK study. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29 (2), 189-199.
This article aims to breakdown the connection in young black males between their academic success and the influence of their religious beliefs and religious community. Several studies and interviews were conducted and it was found that many of the African-American males student cite their religion as a means of inspiration and a sense of understanding. It is historically known that African-Americans are a very religious group. This religion and an understanding of Christianity particularly helped these interviewed students. The only students who did not cite their religion as an aid to their scholastic endeavors were members of the Islamic faith. Particularly, the individuals personal relationship with God is noted for giving them something to look forward to in the end, worrying less, and being more focus on important issues.

Chambliss, William J. (1994) Policing the Ghetto Underclass: The Politics of Law and Law Enforcement. Social Problems. 41 (2), 177-194.
This entry discusses various methods that the police have used in order to stop crimes in predominantly black neighborhoods. The Rapid Deployment also knows as the Rip unit is one of these methods used and it is explained by William Chambliss. He also discusses the use of vehicular stops, search warrants, and the consequences. Chambliss includes a few charts that correlate statistics from the United States to those of other countries as well. Chambliss begins his conclusion by discussing the effects of family education and the intensive surveillance of black neighborhoods.

Chen, E. (2008) The Liberation Hypothesis. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice. 6 (2) 83-99.
California has a “three strikes and you’re out” policy in regards to felony crimes. Strike one for a felony offense, strike two for a second felony offense and your sentence is doubled, and strike three for a third felony offense that requires a mandatory twenty-five years to life sentence. The liberation hypothesis is Chen’s analysis of the legal system in regards to how it sentences different races of inmates, specifically the state of California with regard to its felons. Statistics show that interpretations of which crimes are worthy of a “strike” are disproportionately tipped against African-Americans. According to Chen, they comprise six percent of the United States’ population, but 44% of third strike inmates in the state’s prison system. It could be said that the so called justice system has unjustly compiled a list of “Black” crimes and put them in the “strike” category. As stated by Chen legal jargon covers this up.

Comeaux, E. (2004). Black Males in the College Classroom: A Quantitative Analysis of Study Athlete-Faculty Interactions. Challenge: A Journal of Research of African American Men, 1-13
Comeaux performs several surveys and analyses of 739 Black student athletes at predominately white institutions in order to identify ways to better equip promise college athletes with the tools to succeed in a collegiate setting. He looks at the relationship between student athletes and faculty in order to better understand particularly how faculty members are helping the students succeed inside and outside of the classroom. He is proposing that trainings should be mandatory for faculty working with African American males in order for them to be educated to better help them. By understanding issues such as race, racism, and cultural sensitivity the faculty will be able to better assist the students. This will establish more meaningful interactions on a day to day basis.

Cuyjet, M. J. (1997). African Americans on College Campuses: Their needs and their perceptions. New Directions for Student Services, 80, 5-16.
Cuyjet analyzes the disproportionate gains between African American men and women as well as the various disparities within higher education. Along with this there is a discussion of the non-educational implications particularly those that concern employment and social status. Cuyjet poses the view that while most colleges that admit a significant number of minority students afford them with various services and offices equipped with professional staff, those same services may not necessarily address or meet the needs of African American men. In the article, the various discussion and discourses illustrate a need for special services or special care for African American males on campus, particularly those that can be identified as at risk students.

Cuyjet M. J. (2006). African American College Men: Twenty-First-Century Issues and Concerns. In M. J. Cuyjet (ed.), African American Men in College (pp. 3-23). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
As Cuyjet has been one of the leading scholars and researchers on the subject of African American men in higher education, this article focuses on the concerns and implications that African American college males are facing and battling as well as the issues that may arise in the near future. This article is a contemporary analysis on how educators and administrators should examine the issues of retention, student services, programming and development as they relate to the needs of African American males. There are also detailed discussions on relations between African American men and women as well as the various relationships between African American men and other student populations. Cuyjet suggests certain modes and methods of interventions that can assist both African American men and women.

Cuyjet, M. J. (2006). Helping African American men matriculate: Ideas and Suggestions. In M. J. Cuyjet (ed.), African American Men in College (pp. 237-249). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Cuyjet gives a broad overview of many issues that concern the matriculation of African American males and elevating their levels of academic achievement and success. Cuyjet highlights the need to isolate African American men from any other group for reasons such as assessment and the development of successful programming and implementations. While this article is a summary of various chapters in a book that details the needs and various assessments of African American men in college, it highlights and specifically summarizes the contemporary challenges and issues that African American male students face. Cuyjet ends the discussion by summarizing implications and suggestions and recommendations for college administrators for the near future.

Cross, T., & Slater, R. B. (2000). The alarming decline in the academic performance of African American men. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 27, 82-87
In contrast to the academic performance of African American women, African American men have had much lower performance, and completion rates. Cross and Slater espouse the gender gap in academic performance as well as highlighting other indicators such as the participation rates of African American males in graduate and professional schools. While there have been many institutions combating these issues concerning African American men, there is some concern that if current trends continue as they have been, the participation of African American men in Higher Education at the end of this century will steadily decline to a nominal level. Cross and Slater indicate various factors including contemporary cultural trends such as negative stereotyping and the favoring of African American women over men by teachers and administrators at various levels.

Davis, J. E. (1995). College in black and white: Campus environment and academic achievement of African American males. Journal of Negro Education, 63 (4), 620-633
Davis gives a detailed and lengthy analysis of the experience of African American males at predominately white campuses and highlights two significant factors that affect the experience and achievement of African American males. These factors are specified as the perception of a lack of positive support and discrimination from professors, administrators, and fellow students. In an extensive introduction supported by literature, Davis explains how institutional social support can affect the outcome of student achievement and experience as well as the link between the social and academic experience of African American males. In a study that analyzed student background, college-level factors, and academic performance Davis exclusively researches the differences between African American males attending predominately white institutions and historically Black institutions.

Elaine , Rodney, Robert Mupier, and Betty Crafter. (1996). Predictors of Alcohol Drinking Among African American Adolescents: Implications for. Journal of Negro Education. 65 (4), 434-444.
This journal entry is intended to correlate the relationship between adolescents who use alcohol and crime. It analyzes certain influences such as gender, age, and self-esteem. The authors test the hypothesis that “positive self-esteem places African American youth in a position of strength to counter the adverse consequences of parental alcoholism and other deliberating circumstances.” There is significant information about the relationship between adult children alcoholics and children of alcoholics. The conclusion discusses the importance of prevention and additional research.

Flowers, L. A. (2006). Effects of attending a 2-year institution on African American males’ academic and social integration in the first year of college. TeachersCollege Record, 108 (2), 267-286.
While a large percentage of African American male students that enter college matriculate at a four year institution, many attend 2 year institutions. This article explores the impact of attending a 2 year institution as opposed to a 4 year institution. The study analyzed academic experiences as well as social integration experiences during the first year of attendance at 2 and 4 year institutions. As many studies do, several variables were isolated and highlighted such as pre-college characteristics, institutional characteristics and students’ academic experiences in college. The article includes a plethora of data and as well as charts, graphs, and tables that illustrate demographics, academic experiences and performance. A report on the results is given followed by a comprehensive discussion on the effects of attendance at 2-year institutions.

Franklin, V.P. (2009). Commentary: Reparations for educational malfeasance. The Journal of African American history, 149-152.
Franklin seeks to challenge the education system in America which he focuses his efforts on the notion that since schools have been segregated and reintegrated that the education that has been given to children of color has been less substantial and much less equipping to those students in comparison to white students. Classrooms are overcrowded and teachers cannot focus on particular students to receive great educational feedback from them. He makes the claim that educational malfeasance has been on the agenda of white people in order to keep power. By controlling the education of a man they can in turn control his destiny which many public schools have feed students from the public school system to the private jail system and it in turn creating billions of dollars for those individuals in that private sector. Class action suits have been filed against many school systems both state and local in order to attempt to bring about a better quality of education for children of color which can spawn their achievement in the real world.

Gadsden, Vivian L., and Ralph R. Smith. (1994) African American Males and Fatherhood: Issues in Research and Practice." Journal of Negro Education. 63 (4), 634-648.
Gadsden and Smith cover various topics associated with African American males and fatherhood. They have stated that these categories usually perceive them as males who are “at risk” in either academics, juveniles, or absent as fathers. The journal ends up focusing on African American males and their roles as fathers. Gadsden and Smith argue the effectiveness of programs that have been set up to focus more on these categories and research efforts. They have incorporated commentaries from various directors as well as data from a case study from a program that served fifty young fathers.

Garibaldi, A. M. (1992). Educating and motivating African American males to succeed. The Journal of Negro Education, 61, 4-11.
Garibaldi focuses on the experience of African American males in various public school systems of American but specifically focused on schools in New Orleans, Louisiana. While African American males face various challenges at the collegiate level, many of them never reach higher education due to their experiences in secondary schools. This article highlights various statistics that have been compiled from various studies demonstrating a need for an analysis of the education of African American males. These studies point to decline in academic performance in areas such as math and reading at the fourth grade level. Other statistics illustrate similar findings as discussed by Garibaldi in the article. While these findings are alarming there is a discussion on what can be done to remedy the situation. According to Garibaldi, African American male students at the elementary school levels face an even greater decline in academic performance due to teachers, administrators and other elements perpetuating negative stereotypes. Research demonstrates that at the elementary level all students need the support of teachers, family and community including African American males.

Goluboff, Risa. (1997). Reckoning with Race and Criminal Justice." Yale Law Journal. 106 (7), 229-304.
Risa Goluboff addresses how the criminal justice system controls over the African American male. Risa gives her opinion on ways to reshape the criminal justice system and not to just give African American males jail time.

Gordon, E. T., Gordon, E. W., & Nembhard, J. G. (1994) Social science literature concerning African American men. The Journal of Negro Education, 63, 508-531.
The authors of this article highlight the need for research on the African American male as well as an analysis of the past research that has often precluded more progressive research and studies on the African American male in education, social science, economics and law. Before the 1980s much of the literature and discourse on the African American male focused on the plight and negative correlations such as absentee fatherhood, and correlations between collegiate participation and those participating in criminal activity that led to imprisonment. The authors also highlight some of current and contemporary trends.

Hall R. E. (2001). The ball curve: Calculated racism and the stereotype of African American men. Journal of Black Studies, 32 (1), 104-119.
This article defines various forms of racism that is present in modern day society in the United States that African American men face on a daily basis. Hall describes the origins of European superiority such as colonialism, slavery, and subjugation. Through a historical lens, Hall explains how Western racism has destroyed the image of the African American men in all aspects of society including the political, educational, economic, and legal realms. As a result African American men face many obstacles in obtaining higher levels of education due to exclusionary admissions standards and reliance on culturally biased measures such as I.Q. and standardized tests. Following Halls discourse on the various effects of institutional and cultural racism is a discussion on the origins and categories of stereotypes associated with African American men. Hall does not limit the scope of his discourse to African American men. The experiences and challenges of other racial minorities are discussed as well.

Hall, R. E., & Rowan, G. T. (2000). African American males in higher education: A descriptive/qualitative analysis. Journal of African American men, 5 (3), 3-14.
This article analyzes a study on the factors that inhibit academic success for African American males in higher education. There is discourse and analysis on how racism impacts enrollment, retention, as well as graduation. The study also details peripheral factors such as institutional governance, administration and model. The authors give an extensive literature review, methodology, and implications that display several revelations such as institutions only accessing a certain applicant pool, and the effects of racism. The theory of human development is also discussed in the conclusion of the article and how it relates to student success among the population of African American male students.

Hare, N., & Hare, J. (1991). African American Males on Campus: An Endangereds Species. Black Collegian, 21 (4), 126-130.
This article is a brief synopsis of the plight of African American males on the various college campuses across the United States. While this article highlights some of the factors that contribute to lack of enrollment, the article also details some of various implications that the future holds for all African Americans in education and in society. The lack of African American males obtaining college degrees will result in a smaller applicant pool for jobs requiring baccalaureate and graduate degrees. Along with this African American females that are attending colleges find it more difficult to locate their male counterpart for social communication and possible partnership, whether it be possible marriage or for professional reasons. Other factors such as the presence of middle class white women permeating all facets of society and education have even more implications for the cultural representation of African American males. As trends continue in education and the economy for African American males this article illustrates the furthering of the crisis that African American males are currently facing.

Harris, Angela P. (2000). Gender, Violence, Race, and Criminal Justice." Stanford Law Review. 52 (4), 777-807.
Harris analyzes the correlation between gender, violence, race, and criminal justice. Harris frames and examines these correlations in three different sections throughout the entry. The first section deals with gender performance and its relationship with masculinity. The second section deals with crime and punishment. It discusses various influences on males as well as some issues concerning gender violence and lawbreaking. The third section discusses ways to resolve some common problems by disengaging the way the criminal system pursues gender violence.

Harper, S. R. (2006). Enhancing African American male student outcomes through leadership and active involvement. In M. J. Cuyjet (Ed.), African American Men in College (pp. 69-94). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
The lack of African American male student involvement in the social and academic climate at predominately white institutions can be one of the significant factors that impede social and academic success at predominately white institutions. Harper analyzes and considers the gains of African American male participation in social experiences as well as leadership activities. There is a review of current literature on theories of student involvement and how it relates to the current trends of African American males in Higher Education. There is also a discussion concerning the positive correlations between student involvement and outcomes. By highlighting the current trends of African American males concerning student involvement and leadership, Harper illustrates strategic initiatives that can lead to higher rates of student involvement and as a result, higher rates of success and achievement.

Harper, S. R., & Harris, F. (2006). The role of black fraternities in the African American male undergraduate experience. In M. J. Cuyjet (Ed.), African American Men inCollege (pp. 128-153). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
While fraternities offer a social network unlike any others to all those that participate, the significance of African American male fraternities has always been large and relevant to the college experience to those that join. Harper and Harris give a historical context of the presence of the Black fraternities in higher education but the article also offers discourse on how the fraternal experience relates to student development, leadership development as well as cognitive development. There is also some discourse on current issues and the many challenges and problems concerning Black Fraternities. The issue of academic achievement and failure in correlation to participation in fraternal organizations is also discussed. Harper and Harris dictate that as this new century progresses, fraternities must progress as well if those that have membership to the various fraternities are to continue the past trends of leadership.

Hood, D.W. (1992). Academic and non-cognitive factors affecting the retention of Black men at a predominantly White university. Journal of Negro Education, 61 (1), 12–23.
While much literature on the African American male focuses on environmental and social factors, Hood focuses on measures that may indicate academic success at a mainstream institution such as standardized tests, high school G.P.A., and the courses taken and completed in high school. The bulk of the article focuses on a study that was completed at a predominately white Midwestern university. A cohort of African American males was followed and various questionnaires completed. Variables used in the questionnaires included self-assessment, campus support, academic support and family support. The aforementioned factors coupled with the various indexes including GPA, standardized test scores, and high school class ranking provided the data for the study. Hood analyzed the results of the study for a discussion and brief analysis on the attrition rates of African American males at predominately white institutions.

Johnson-Dalzine, Patricia, Lawrence Dalzine, and Charles Martin-Stanley. (1996) Fear of Criminal Violence and the African American Elderly: Assessment of a Crime. Journal of Negro Education. 65 (4), 462-469.
The authors of this article address an issue which seems to be a concern for the elderly African Americans in the United States. Despite the low rate of violence recorded for the elderly they still seem to worry. Studies have shown that despite the lower rate elderly African Americans have a victimized rate that’s twice as high as their Caucasian counterparts. The authors point out factors which contribute to this cause such as their actual neighborhoods and the “deterioration” present. Studies have also suggested that their proximity to a “population that has been found to be disproportionately involved in violent crime” has also contributed to this fear.

The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. (1998). Why the large and growing gender gap in African American Higher education. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 19, 34-35.
Although brief, this article highlights the alarming gender gap between African American women and men in Higher Education. The article offers numerous statistics in various areas of higher education demonstrating the obvious gap but there is also some discourse on the factors that are attributed and associated with the large gender gap between African American males and women in higher education. Obvious indicators include racism and discrimination but the article also highlights motivating factors. One of which is the absence of African American males in higher education and in general in many areas of society but also the absence of African American fathers and positive role models. The author also highlights some of the various factors that propel African American women into higher education such as the concept of being a double minority, making them more attractive to the corporate world and in education. The discussion includes the adverse effects of slavery, and years and years of degradation that African Americans have faced.

King, Anthony. (1997). Understanding Violence among African American Males. Journal of Black Studies. 28 (1), 79-96.
Anthony King article addresses crime among African American males. He compares so of the statistics between African American violence and European American violence. King addresses some of the reason why African American males are more violent. He talks about enslavement after slavery, police brutally and capital punishment and, poverty among African Americans. King gives ways violent prevention programs can help African American males better by, addressing African American young males low self-worth and also having prevention programs focus on incarcerated males as well.

Kubiak, S. (2008) Depression in African American & White Women convicted of a felony drug offense. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions. 8 (3), 322-42.
In recent years, women have been arrested in relation to drug crimes at a higher rate than men. African American women are more likely to be both arrested and prosecuted than white women. Depression is a major concern for those who study these women, as it is commonly found to be a prevalent issue in many inmates. This depression, specifically called Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, often comes as a result of being incarcerated. Social location, prior socioeconomic status, and race all have profound effects on the severity of depression among these women. Black women who come from poorer backgrounds who have reported experiences of racism have the highest level of depression among the women studied. This study shows a clear need for screening, assessment and treatment in order to better serve the incarcerated.

Loose, P., Lurigio, A.J., (2008) The Disproportionate Incarceration of African Americans for drug offenses. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice. 6 (3), 223-47.
This work from the Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice focuses on Illinois, the United States’ leader in the disparity between African-Americans and Whites incarcerated in the state’s prison system. In Illinois, 43% of the population resides in Cook County, where Chicago is located. However, 63% of the states drug offenders sentenced to prison hail from the county. Metropolitan drug sales in the Chicago area are largely to blame for such a disparity but the real unsolved issue is whether or not areas densely populated with African –Americans are being targeted by police. Lurigio says that Police are targeting Blacks and believes it will continue unless more attention is brought to the matter, and Police departments re-think the ways it hires its public servants.

Malcolm, N. (2007). Free College Education is Available for Black Males. The New York Amsterdam News, Feb. 8-14, 36
Malcolm follows a program that many Historically Black Colleges and Universities are participating in that will grant a deserving young black male student full tuition along with the resources that he will need to succeed in college. The program is called “Call me MISTER” which is an acronym that stands for Men Instructing Students Toward Effective Role models. All a student much turn in is an application which includes an essay and two letters of recommendation, one from a high school guidance counselor and one from a person who knows the child well enough to write about why they would be a good teacher. The program was started in 1999 and has since helped many young black male students reach their potential.

Martin, Don, Magy, Martim, Gibson, Suzanne Semivan, & Wilkins, Jonathan. (2007). Increasing prosocial behavior and academic achievement among adolescent African American males. ADOLESCENCE, 42(168), 689-698.
This article is based on a study of African American males in a Youngtown, OH school. Students who were part of an at risk group who experiences high levels of truancy, behavioral issues, and suspension/expulsion from school. They also came from impoverished families and were part of an after-school program and which sought to significantly raise the participants’ scores on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. By the end of the study the participants had raised their score in reading and mathematics while also showing fewer suspensions and behavioral issues.

McDonald, H. (2008) Is The Criminal Justice System Racist. City Journal: 12-21.
Many claim that blacks are being targeted by law enforcement; others claim that blacks simply commit crimes at a higher rate than other races by proportion. Although opinions vary one thing is clear. Blacks comprise 37.5 percent of the prison/jail rosters in America. Politicians, common citizens and scholars alike frequently debate the cause of these statistics. McDonald examines the raw statistics that expose the fact that Blacks commit serious crimes at higher rates in an attempt to suggest that the problem may not be as much a result of racism as it is blacks committing crimes. There are numerous socioeconomic and historic factors that directly contribute to these “raw” statistics such as blacks being herded from plantations to ghettos. Yet and still, the criminal justice system must be closely examined and explored in order for the answer to be found. McDonald points out that even the likes of President Obama have clearly asserted that blacks tend to receive very different treatment for the same crimes. The article explores reasons for these assertions while addressing needs within the black community which would help lower the rates at which blacks are arrested.

Meares, T. (2009) The Legitimacy of Police among young African-American Men. Marquette Law Review. 92 (4), 652-66.
The notion that blacks are targeted by law enforcement more than other ethnicities has led to distrust in the minds of black men in regards to the police. Instead of seeing the police as a public good, many Black men see them as a foe seeking to deny them their freedom. Therefore the police have lost a degree of legitimacy in the Black community and if police want to change this ongoing trend, changes will need to be made by engaging, positive policeman one encounter at a time. Tracey Meares says Black men need to work hard to dispel stereotypes by not falling into the traps of our society and significantly reducing the amount of crimes they commit. According to Meares, the U.S. needs to spend more money on education specifically in the inner cities in order to get the result of more informed citizens who are less likely to partake in crimes.

Mendez Jr., Gary A. (2000) Incarcerated African American Men and Their Children: A Case Study. Sage Publications, Inc. in association with the American Academy of Political. (569), 86-101.
This entry discusses the roles of males as fathers in the African American community. A study by the National Trust for the Development of African-American Men analyzed the behavior of African American men while incarcerated. The study was reported to have shown that the men show a desire to strengthen their relationships with their families while they are incarcerated. Mendez also discusses the implications of fatherhood programs and the interest shown by the men who would like to become a part of them. In this entry there are also some statistical results and findings reported in order to back up the case study.

Mendez, Jr., Gary A. "Crime and Policy in the African American Community." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. (494), 105-110.
This journal discusses and analyzes the effects that crime has not only on the African American community but also their adolescents. The entry discusses possible reasons why crime seems disproportionate regarding the amount connected to African Americans. Mendez also argues that African Americans have been plagued by crime and other social dilemmas due to their loss of identity as a people. He backs his argument with a few examples and also discusses some recent government responses to crime and policy amongst African Americans and their outcome. Mendez ends by writing about his program “Crime is not a part of Our Black Heritage” and what it constitutes.

Messer, K. L. (2006). African American male college athletes. In M. J. Cuyjet (Ed.), African American Men in College (pp. 154-173). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
Messer raises many issues ranging from the effects of the professional sports industry on the African American community to the issue of academic mediocrity that many college athletes face at colleges and universities. While many college athletes live the lives of celebrities when they are members of successful college athletic teams and clubs, their glamorous life is often cut short and their experience is unfulfilling as many college athletes do not graduate and this is particularly true of African American male athletes. While some college athletes do have the opportunity of becoming professional athletes, this mitigating factor does not hide the fact that college athletes are at risk for academic mediocrity and failure. Messer gives a review of the current literature but also details the experience of the African American male athlete. There is an analysis of the various factors that affect the experience of the aforementioned student population such as academic support, peer and family support as well as academic factors or stereotypes and discrimination. Messer reviews programs that have been initiated to thwart the challenges that student athletes faced and gives a summary of effective practices for African American male athletes.

Milner IV, H.R. African American Males in Urban Schools: No Excuses- Teach and Empower. Theory in Practice, 46 (3), 239-246.
Milner exposes the fallacy that black males in urban schools are of a lesser educational aptitude than their counterparts of other races. He goes over various observations he has made by visiting schools and seeing the progression of black males in the classroom. For far too long administrators and teachers have placed black males in positions that are not conducive to success. There is an underrepresentation in honors classes and an overrepresentation in remedial classes. The goal of the article is to dispel the notion that African American males are less likely to succeed. If the proper tool and encouragement is given to them they can be successful.

Miller, K. (2008) Police Stops, Pretext, and Racial Profiling. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice. 6 (2), 123-145.
This study explores the notion that police make traffic stops under racial pretenses. Any traffic stop made by a police officer that can be proven to be made primarily for a traffic violation reason is justifiable in the eyes of the law. As Miller points out, officers abuse this concept at times, disproportionately stopping African-Americans. Instances where warnings have been issued raise a red flag and according to research can be instances in which racial profiling was involved. are, he can attest to being stopped by the police under suspicious pretenses. This study provides evidence that traffic codes may be used as an excuse to administer general investigations on individuals.

O'Hear, M. (2009) Rethinking Drug Courts. Stanford Law & Policy Review. 20 (2), 463-499.
Drug courts have become increasingly popular since their establishment in 1989. The courts rise in popularity came in response to the unpopularity of the way in which traditional courts were handling drug offenders. Simply throwing them in jail was devastating poor minority communities. The war on drugs seems to have been targeting African-Americans and ultimately treating them different than whites. Blacks in Milwaukee for instance, are seven times more likely to get arrested for a drug related crime than whites. This is one of the highest disparities in America. Drug courts have been offered as an alternative to traditional courts, which have been ridiculed for handing out stiffer sentences to minorities. However drug courts do have their weaknesses. The text seeks to determine if these courts are indeed a legitimate need in our society or if they are a simply just another political ploy which seeks to cloak an unjust system. O’Hear concludes that major improvements will have to come from legislative reform. He also asserts that changes in police behavior such as reducing racial profiling will help but in the meantime court based diversions may be the best we can do.

Oliver, William. (1989). Black Males and Social Problems: Prevention Through Afrocentric Socialization. Journal of Black Studies. 20 (1), 15-39.
William Oliver discusses genetic inferiority amongst African Americans and Americans themselves. This journal has various examples of criticisms that the genetic inferiority theory has taken. The culture poverty perspective is also analyzed in this entry. This perspective is based on the assumption and etiology of social problems within the African American community. William discusses these theories and various ideologies that have affected or criticized African Americans. He also analyzes manhood, sexual conquest and “problematic behavior.”

Oliver, W. (2005). Imprisonment, Reentry, and Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of Aggression, Mal Treatment and Trauma. 259-276.
African-American men are disproportionately represented in America’s jails and prisons. Records show that 10.4% of all black men aged 25-29 are incarcerated. William Oliver inspects the relationship between inmates and their wives/girlfriends who struggle to support and continue to be in a relationship with them. There seems to be a disturbing trend within this particular sub-group of African American women. Statistics show that they experience intimate partner violence at a rate which is 35% higher than white women. Factors such as unresolved accusations about infidelity are among the leading causes of this violence. Oliver also draws attention to the reentry and recidivism rates of African American males. Over 600,000 prisoners return to communities throughout the United States annually, and only 45 percent of these men complete their parole term. Among African-American men, intimate partner violence is among the leading causes of reentry.

Peacock, R. (2008) Experiences of Discrimination. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice. 6 (2), 151-66.
In “Experiences of Discrimination,” Robert Peacock examines the relationship between identity, marginalization, and discrimination in South Africa. The nation’s Black citizens have been impacted by its implications for decades. As referenced by Peacock and according to Psychologist John Erikson, Identity is developed during adolescence, when many physical & mental changes are taking place. A survey was conducted by the Journal using imprisoned blacks to determine emotions in regards to identity. Most individuals did not blame discrimination but simply said their friends were the reasons for discrimination. However their friends were most likely black so this fact is misleading. He concludes saying that this experienced discrimination has damaged these young people emotional and psychologically which has indeed affected their self-identity.

Primm, E. (2008) Race, Fear, and Firearms. Journal of African-American Studies. 63-73.
Firearms and the issue of gun control is a debate which has been simmering since the signing of the declaration of independence. Racial Minorities have been associated with gun crime for seemingly as long in an attempt to make whites fear them and to perpetuate separation among other things. In the 21st century the issue of gun control is more complex than ever due to the diversity of America’s peoples and landscape. Whites often associate gun crimes with blacks, specifically young black males. many gun control laws are selectively enforced which opens the door for the logic of police to be rooted in racism. A selective government is one which exudes injustice and should be punished if it indeed participates in such acts. Primm concludes that the reasons blacks have been demonized over the years by whites is due to Demographics, Culture, Fear , and racism. Whites wanted Blacks to be viewed as a threat to the average Americans’ “Way of Life”.

Rich, J. A. (2000). The Health of African American Men. ANNALS, AAPSS, (569), 149-159.
Health has always been a concern for African American males, and in this article, Rich analyzes various factors that impede the health of African American men including socio-economic factors, stressors, and discrimination that many African American males face in daily life. While other minority groups face similar social ills in the United States, the health of African American men is significantly at odds moreover than any other ethnic group or gender. This article highlights the importance of educating African American males on issues concerning health and fitness and it is equally important to introduce African American youth to positive habits that will promote good health and a possible longer life that is on par with other Americans.

Riegle-Crumb, Catherine. (2006). The Path through Math: Course Sequences and Academic Performance at Intersection of Race-Ethnicity and Gender. American Journal of Education. (113), 101-122.
Daunting statistics are shown here to educate the reader on the impact of mathematic s in African American and Latino Males. It is known that the gender gap in education classes exists as females are succeeding at a higher rate and faster pace than their male counterparts. The article essentially explores the issue regarding to math sequences of high school students and particularly minorities. The classes that are being taken are not helping the students prepare for a collegiate environment. Many minority children are being drastically outperformed by their white counterparts. It is noted that if a student does not at least start high school in an algebra course than by the time they finish high school they are still left unprepared and unexposed to higher levels of mathematics. This is turn is a vicious cycle which causes an educational disparity due to the trajectory mathematics courses provide to those minority males.

Roach, R. (2001). Where are the Black men on campus? Black issues in Higher Education, 18 (6).
Roach offers a brief analysis of the imbalance in the levels of participation of Black men at academic institutions. A study was completed at Dillard University in New Orleans to offer discourse on the effects of the absence of African American men on campus. While there are many issues concerning African American male enrollment, retention and graduation at predominately white institutions, historically Black universities and colleges are experiencing the same phenomena. At universities like Dillard, African American women grossly outnumber the males. This article analyzes and identifies factors that are keeping African American men from entering college. Factors such as military service, incarceration, are analyzed as well as campus environment.

Roberts. G. W. (1994). Brother to Brother: African American Modes of Relating Among Men. Journal of Black studies, 24 (4), 379-390.
Roberts’ article explores the various cultural elements that are present in friendships and communications of African American men. In the context of Western European values and modes of masculinity African American men often struggle in their own recognizance in the midst of American society. This article details the various barriers to male-male relationships and the modes that African American males use in relating to one another. Roberts analyzes various studies that have been done on African American male-male relationships that address these relationships as both a cultural norm and as a reaction to the social constraints placed on African American men due to negative stereotypes and racism as well as Eurocentric modes of masculinity. Roberts’ article supports the premise that African American men have to compromise and negotiate between the two modes which are often in conflict with one another. While the Afro-centric mode of masculinity stresses community and cooperation, the Eurocentric model stresses competition and individuality.

Schmidt, P. (2008). Colleges Seek key to Success of Black Men in Classroom. The Chronicle of Higher Education, (54) A1, A23-25.
Colleges across the United States have seen terrible numbers reflecting the success of African American males in higher education. The issue starts in high school where drop-out rate are high and graduation rates are low. For the individuals lucky enough to make it to college are in most cases ill-prepared and stand at a disadvantage in comparison to their white counterparts. When in college, African American men usually face the issue of not only being ill-prepared but being ashamed to ask for helps in attempts to be so called “cool.” Creating a detriment for themselves, scholars and the likes have attempted to create programs and place initiatives on college campus to boost the success rates of the mentioned group. In the successful cases, a sense of belonging and identity along with being surrounded by like-minded individuals has dramatically increased success in particular black males.

Simmons, Roberta G., Ann Black, and Yingzhi Zhou. (1991). African-American versus White Children and the Transition into Junior High School. American Journal of Education. 99 (4), 481-520.
This entry serves to observe and analyze the difference between African-American and Caucasian students as they make an academic transition. There has always been research on the effects of transition from various grade levels amongst students. This journals interest lies in the development of minority children versus Caucasian students. The central focus is actually in between elementary to junior high school. It discusses the change from an intimate and close elementary school education and setting to a more “impersonal” and open junior high setting. This journal also answers the question “Does the movement out of a school for children into a school for adolescents affect black and white students similarly or different?” Various pressures are also discussed such as parent-child conflict, academics, and peer relations.

Solorzano, Daniel, Miguel Ceja, and Tara Yasso. (2000). Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and Campus Racial Climate: The Experiences of. Journal of Negro Education. 69 (1 and 2), 60-73.
This journal highlights various forms of micro-aggressions that are insults that are subtly said oftentimes automatically and unconsciously. There are various examples of statements that were taken during some research concerning micro-aggression as well as some insight given concerning the matter. This journal also analyzes the undergraduate experience and the racial climate on the typical college campus. These studies led to the initiation of the Critical Race Theory (CRT) that “draws and extends a broad literature base in law, sociology, history, ethnic studies, and women’s studies.” The CRT consists of five different parts, which are designed to demonstrate how the African American students’ college experience should be handled in a racial climate.

Stults, B. J. (2007) Racial Context & Police force size: Evaluating the Empirical Validity of the Minority Threat Perspective. American Journal of Sociology. 113 (2), 507-54.
The Minority Threat Perspective is explored in this writing. The thoughts and perceptions that result in police force size and the structure of the local criminal justice system, which is dependent upon race, defines this social perspective. Over time these perceptions do experience shifts, however the core attitudes remain intact to an extent. Other than an area’s given population, the size of police forces around the country is a direct reflection of the dominant group’s attitude toward minority groups in a given area. The response of the dominant group depends upon whether or not it feels economically and politically threatened. Progress in race relations generated by time and events such as the election of America’s first black President are game changers, but however progressive, the feeling of threat is ever-present in the hearts and minds of the majority.

Sutton, E. M. (2006). Developmental mentoring of African American college men. In M. J. Cuyjet (Ed.), African American Men in College (pp. 95-111). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
The significance of mentorship has always been relevant to the discussion of African American males in higher education. Not only does mentorship foster academic success, and professional development, but bonds are made and strengthened through constant interaction with peers, mentors and any individuals involved. Sutton highlights a need for African American male mentorship and that mentoring programs for African American males are growing in various academic institutions in various forms. There is also a discussion on various approaches to mentoring such as instructional mentoring and developmental mentoring. Examples and overviews of mentoring programs are detailed followed by a summary and recommendations.

Washington, V. & Newman, J. (1991). Setting our own Agenda: Exploring the meaning of gender disparities among Blacks in Higher Education. The Journal of NegroEducation, 60 (1), 19-35
Although African Americans have maintained significant participation and in higher education since the late 1960s the presence of African American men at collegiate institutions can be described as sporadic at best. African American males have experienced greater losses in higher education than any other racial or gender group, especially in enrollment and graduation. In this article the authors analyze and offer discourse on various factors and measures including pre college experiences such as high school and other factors and inhibitors that African American males face before matriculating at universities or colleges. These factors include family experiences and background, social and cognitive factors as well as peer interactions and environmental influences. The experience of African Americans in graduate school and as faculty members is not excluded. Extensive discourse is offered on the aforementioned as well as discussion on the present of African Americans in graduate and professional schools and as administrative and executive personnel or faculty. By constantly highlighting the gender gap, many scholars deemphasize from larger problems which stem from racism and discrimination. In this article a discussion on the status and outlook for African Americans is given but the authors also isolate males and females by examining factors and challenges that are specific to both populations of students.

Wiatrowkski, M. (2008) Race and Capital Punishment. Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice. 6 (2), 103-21.
Race is often a determinant of sentencing as supported by evidence. Wiatrowski seeks to determine if it’s a factor with regard to capital punishment. This article uses data to show the number of people sentenced to death row and the data causes one to ponder if the reasons behind higher numbers in particular states is at all related to higher minority populations within those states. Wiatrowski suggests that these measures were an attempt by power elites to “control” racial minorities most likely out of a feeling of threat. Wiatrowski believes ideological disparity among states is to blame.

Wildeman, C. (2009) Parental Imprisonment, The Prison Boom, and The Concentration of Childhood Disadvantage. Demography. 46 (2), 266-280.
Christopher Wildeman examines children who have a parent who is incarcerated and the profound disadvantages it causes among these children. The socioeconomic issues that incarceration brings directly impact children’s lives. In addition, the trauma these youth experience has a big effect on their childhood experience as a whole and these effects can extend well beyond childhood into adolescence and beyond. Children of color, specifically African-Americans are at a higher level of risk than whites, which is why this issue is something that needs to be examined more closely by minorities. Imprisonment of a parent causes an increase in foster care in many cases. A strong childhood family structure is essential to becoming a productive member of society. The incarceration of a parent puts such an end goal in jeopardy as alluded to in the text.

Wilson-Sadberry, K. R., Winfield, L. F., & Royster, D. A. (1991). Resilience and Persistence of African American Males in Post-Secondary Enrollment. Education and Urban Society, 24 (1), 87-102.
This article highlights the decrease in degree attainment of African American males since the 1980s. While there have been gains for African Americans across the country in various fields and in different disciplines, the decreases in African American college enrollments reflect the lack of participation of African Americans in higher education. The article goes on to analyze the factors that help African American male students achieve success and academic achievement on college campuses. Other issues are discussed such as self-confidence, financial resources, as well as the aspirations of African American men. An extensive discussion on the impact that peers, counselors, and educational preparation have on the success rates of African American males.

Wortley, Scot. (1997). Just Des(s)erts? The Racial Polarization of Perception of Criminal Injustice. Law & Society Review. 31 (4), 637-76.
The article addresses Sociologist interest in how reactions to deviance influence social order and consensus. Scot Wortley article examinees how media coverage of an interracial homicide can influence public attitudes towards the criminal justice system. Initial results indicate that race, education, and police contact directly affect perceptions of criminal injustice. Perceptions of injustice are especially high among well-educated blacks who have had recent contact with the police. Analysis reveals that the media coverage of the homicide seems temporarily to consolidate public confidence in the police and criminal courts. However, this effect varies by race and education. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings.

K. Yamamoto, Eric, Susan K. Serrano, and Michelle N. Rodriguez. (2003). African Racial Justice On Trial-Again: African American Reparations, Human Rights, and the War on Terror. Michigan Law ReviewAssociation. 101 (5), 1269-1337.
This entry discusses the various pressures which affect men of color in the judicial system. Not only does it analyze African American stigmas and situations it also takes a look at Japanese Americans. The two races are analyzed in the second portion of this journal under the “Epochal Race Trials: Japanese Interment and African American Slavery.” This entry discusses the ongoing law suits and discussions about African American reparations. It also takes a look at redress claims and analyzes them alongside Americans moral rights and it so called “war on terror.”

Zamani-Gallaher, Ebony M. (2007). The Confluence of Race, Gender, and Class among Community College Students: Assessing Attitudes Toward Affirmative Action in college admissions. Equity & Excellence in Education, (40), 241-251.
Zamani-Gallaher breaks down the issue of affirmative action and the representation of minority groups in community colleges. She illustrates that many community colleges are overly packed with members on underrepresented groups nationwide. Affirmative action collegiately aims to eradicate the struggles that can be associated higher education in reference to women and African Americans. The conclusion exemplifies the various opinions relating to affirmative action amongst community college students finding that mainly minority groups favor the programs and initiative more than majority and women favor it more than males.